1678 Elena Cornaro Piscopia became the first woman to be awarded a doctorate of philosophy from the University of Padua.
1867 Barbed wire was patented by Lucien B. Smith of Kent, Ohio.
1945 The Viceroy, Lord Wavell met Congress leaders at Simla to discuss the formation of a new Executive Council made up of Indians.
1947 The Diary of a Young Girl (better known as The Diary of Anne Frank), chronicling the life of a Jewish teenager during the Nazi occupation, was published.
1950 North Korea invaded South Korea, sparking off the Korean War.
1975 President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed, urged by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, declared a state of emergency in India.
1983 The Indian team, led by all-rounder Kapil Dev, won the World Cup in cricket, beating the West Indies in the final.
1997 Jacques-Yves Cousteau (b. 1910), renowned French explorer and filmmaker who studied the sea and its life forms, died.
2006 Billionaire investor Warren Buffett pledged to donate approximately $37 billion USD in shares to the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, effectively making it the largest charitable organization in history.
2006 Arcelor declared its merger with Mittal Steel headed by Laxmi Mittal, to form the world's largest steel-producing company called Arcelor-Mittal.
2009 King of Pop, and the most successful entertainer of all time, Michael Jackson, died.